A. Michael Lincoff, Kathy Wolski, Stephen J. Nicholls and Steven E. Nissen
THIAZOLIDINEDIONES ARE AGOnists of the peroxisome proliferation–activated receptor _(PPAR-_), which regulate transcription of a variety of genes encoding proteins involved in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism.1,2 By virtue of their efficacy in achieving glycemic control, the thiazolidinediones pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are both widely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although these agents can cause peripheral edema and congestive heart failure,3,4 their beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity have stimulated interest that thiazolidinediones might reduce ischemic cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus.
However, a recent meta-analysis of 42 trials comparing rosiglitazone with placebo or active comparators in more than 27 000 patients with diabetes suggested that treatment with rosiglitazone was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death.5 Furthermore, a previous analysis had demonstrated that muraglitazar, an investigational dual agonist of both _- and _-isoforms of
Context Pioglitazone is widely used for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but evidence is mixed regarding the influence of medications of this class on cardiovascular outcomes.
Objective To systematically evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on ischemic cardiovascular events.
Data Sources and Study Selection A database containing individual patientlevel time-to-event data collected during pioglitazone clinical trials was transferred from the drug’s manufacturer for independent analysis. Trials were included if they were randomized, double-blinded, and controlled with placebo or active comparator.
Data Extraction The primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary outcome measures included the incidence of serious heart failure. A fixed-effects approach was used to combine the estimates across the duration strata and statistical heterogeneity across all the trials was tested with the I2 statistic.
Data Synthesis A total of 19 trials enrolling 16 390 patients were analyzed. Study drug treatment duration ranged from 4 months to 3.5 years. Death, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 375 of 8554 patients (4.4%) receiving pioglitazone and 450 of 7836 patients (5.7%) receiving control therapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.94; P=.005). Progressive separation of time-to-event curves became apparent after approximately 1 year of therapy. Individual components of the primary end point were all reduced by a similar magnitude with pioglitazone treatment, with HRs ranging from 0.80 to 0.92. Serious heart failure was reported in 200 (2.3%) of the pioglitazone-treated patients and 139 (1.8%) of the control patients (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.14-1.76; P=.002). The magnitude and direction of the favorable effect of pioglitazone on ischemic events and unfavorable effect on heart failure was homogeneous across trials of different durations, for different comparators, and for patients with or without established vascular disease. There was no evidence of heterogeneity across the trials for either end point (I2=0%; P=.87 for the composite end point and I2=0%; P=.97 for heart failure).
Conclusions Pioglitazone is associated with a significantly lower risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke among a diverse population of patients with diabetes. Serious heart failure is increased by pioglitazone, although without an associated increase in mortality.
Keywords : Pioglitazone, ower risk of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, patients with diabetes, Risk of Cardiovascular Events, ischemic cardiovascular events, pioglitazone clinical trials, serious heart failure
Sumber : JAMA, September 12, 2007—Vol 298, No. 10
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